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The United States Department of the Interior (DI) is a federal executive department of the U.S. government. It is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture’s United States Forest Service.
The department is administered by the United States secretary of the interior, who is a member of the Cabinet of the president. The current secretary is David Bernhardt, who previously served in the Department as deputy secretary. The inspector general position is currently held by Mary Kendall, who is serving as acting inspector general.
Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are usually responsible for police matters and internal security. In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security primarily and the Department of Justice secondarily.
The Department of the Interior has often been humorously called “The Department of Everything Else” because of its broad range of responsibilities.
Formation of the department
A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, but those duties were placed in the Department of State. The idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by presidents from James Madison to James Polk. The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the proposal new steam as the responsibilities of the federal government grew. Polk’s Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a vocal champion of creating the new department.
In 1849, Walker stated in his annual report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do. He noted that the General Land Office had little to do with the Treasury and also highlighted the Indian Affairs office, part of the Department of War, and the Patent Office, part of the Department of State. Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be brought together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the department passed the House of Representatives on February 15, 1849, and spent just over two weeks in the Senate. The department was established on March 3, 1849 (9 Stat. 395), the eve of President Zachary Taylor’s inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill. The first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing.
Early and later years of the department
Many of the domestic concerns the department originally dealt with were gradually transferred to other departments. For example, the Department of Interior was responsible for water pollution control prior to the creation of the EPA. Other agencies became separate departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, which later became the Department of Agriculture. However, land and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, and territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the department managed 507 million acres (2,050,000 km²) of surface land, or about one-fifth of the land in the United States. It manages 476 dams and 348 reservoirs through the Bureau of Reclamation, 410 national parks, monuments, seashore sites, etc. through the National Park Service, and 544 national wildlife refuges through the Fish and Wildlife Service.
Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, while others are handled by the Office of Special Trustee. The current acting assistant secretary for Indian affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin.
The department has been the subject of disputes over proper accounting for Native American Trusts set up to track the income and distribution of monies that are generated by the trust and specific Native American lands, which the government leases for fees to companies that extract oil, timber, minerals, and other resources. Several cases have sought an accounting of such funds from departments within the Interior and Treasury (such as the Minerals Management Service), in what has been a 15-year-old lawsuit. Some Native American nations have also sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US. In 2010 Congress passed the Claims Settlement Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-291), which provided $3.4 billion for the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action trust case and four Native American water rights cases.
The $3.4 billion will be placed in a still-to-be-selected bank and $1.4 billion will go to individuals, mostly in the form of checks ranging from $500 to $1,500. A small group, such as members of the Osage tribe who benefit from huge Oklahoma oil revenues, will get far more, based on a formula incorporating their 10 highest years of income between 1985 and 2009. As important, $2 billion will be used to buy trust land from Native American owners at fair market prices, with the government finally returning the land to tribes. Nobody can be forced to sell.
- Assistant Secretary for Policy, Management, and Budget
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs
- Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance
- Office of International Affairs
- Office of Native Hawaiian Relations
- Office of Restoration and Damage Assessment
- Office of Policy Analysis
- National Invasive Species Council
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, Finance, Performance and Acquisition
- Office of Budget
- Office of Financial Management
- Office of Planning and Performance Management
- Business Integration Office [administers the Financial and Business Management System (FBMS)]
- Office of Acquisition and Property Management
- Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Capital and Diversity
- Office of Human Resources
- Office of Occupational Safety and Health
- Office of Strategic Employee and Organizational Development
- Office of Civil Rights
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology, Information and Business Services
- Office of Collaborative Action and Dispute Resolution
- Appraisal and Valuation Services Office
- Interior Business Center
- Office of Hearings and Appeals
- Office of Facilities and Administrative Services
- Office of the Chief Information Officer
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Safety, Resources Protection and Emergency Services (DAS-PRE)
- Office of Emergency Management (OEM)
- Office of Law Enforcement and Security (OLES)
- Office of Wildland Fire
- Office of Aviation Services (OAS)
- Interagency Borderlands Coordinator
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources Revenue Management
- Office of Natural Resources Revenue
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs
- Assistant Secretary for Fish, Wildlife, and Parks
- Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Management
- Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO)
- Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO)
- Office of Human Capital Management (OHCM)
- Office of Planning and Policy Analysis (OPPA)
- Office of Facilities, Environmental and Cultural Resources (OFECR)
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and Economic Development
- Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED)
- Office of Indian Gaming (OIG)
- Office of Self-Governance (OSG)
- Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
- Office of Indian Services (OIS)
- Office of Field Operations (OFO)
- Office of Justice Services (OJS)
- Office of Trust Services (OTS)
- Bureau of Indian Education (BIE)
- Office of External Affairs
- Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs (OCLA)
- Office of Public Affairs (OPA)
- Office of Federal Acknowledgment (OFA)
- Office of Regulatory Management (ORM)
- Deputy Assistant Secretary for Management
- Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management
- Assistant Secretary for Water and Science
- Assistant Secretary for Insular and International Affairs
- Office of the Solicitor (SOL)
- Office of the Inspector General (OIG)
- Office of General Counsel
- Assistant Inspector General for Investigations
- Assistant Inspector General for Audits, Inspections, and Evaluations
- Office of Audits, Inspections, and Evaluations
- Assistant Inspector General for Management
- Associate Inspector General for External Affairs
- Associate Inspector General for Whistleblower Protection
- Strategy Management Office
- Associate Inspector General for Communications
- Chief Information Officer
- Special Trustee for American Indians
- Federal Executive Boards
- Interior Museum
- National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC)
Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall was implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal of 1921. He was convicted of bribery in 1929, and served one year in prison, for his part in the controversy. A major factor in the scandal was a transfer of certain oil leases from the jurisdiction of the Department of the Navy to that of the Department of the Interior, at Fall’s behest.
Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt—already facing criticism related to his alleged hostility to environmentalism and his support of the development and use of federal lands by foresting, ranching, and other commercial interests, and for banning The Beach Boys from playing a 1983 Independence Day concert on the National Mall out of concerns of attracting “an undesirable element”—resigned abruptly after a September 21, 1983, speech in which he said about his staff: “I have a black, a woman, two Jews and a cripple. And we have talent.” Within weeks of making this statement, Watt submitted his resignation letter.
Under the Administration of President George W. Bush, the Interior Department’s maintenance backlog climbed from $5 billion to $8.7 billion, despite Bush’s campaign pledges to eliminate it completely. Of the agency under Bush’s leadership, Interior Department Inspector General Earl Devaney has cited a “culture of fear” and of “ethical failure.” Devaney has also said, “Simply stated, short of a crime, anything goes at the highest levels of the Department of Interior.”
- FY 2014 Interior Budget in Brief – Appendix O
- FY 2014 Interior Budget in Brief – Appendix A
- GAO, “Federal Land Management: Observations on a Possible Move of the Forest Service into the Department of the Interior”, February 11, 2009
- “About the Inspector General”. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- “Oversight: The Office of the Inspector General for the Department of the Interior”. Committee on Natural Resources. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- “History”, National Park Service web page. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- Elkins, Chuck (October 2013). “Transcript of “Behind the Scenes at the Creation of the EPA” Video” (PDF). EPA Alumni Association. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- Curtis, Mary C., “Obama Hails Passage of Settlement for Native Americans, Black Farmers”, The Huffington Post, 30 November 2010. Accessed 1 December 2011.
- Warren, James, “A Victory for Native Americans?”, The Atlantic, 7 June 2010.
- 556. James G Watt, US Secretary of the Interior., “Simpson’s Contemporary Quotations” (1988) via bartleby.com and Wayback Machine.
- RMOA – Document
- “Bush legacy leaves uphill climb for U.S. parks”, Los Angeles Times, January 25, 2009.
- Crimes Against Nature by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. (2004)
- Utley, Robert M. and Barry Mackintosh; The Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History; Dept. of the Interior, Washington, D.C.; 1989